Plantar heel pain is a commonly encountered orthopedic problem that can cause significant discomfort and a limp because of the difficulty in bearing weight. The etiologies of this condition are multiple; therefore, a careful clinical evaluation is necessary for its appropriate management. Nonsurgical or conservative care is successful in most cases.
some heel pain can be caused by rheumatological diseases, and these pains can do a real good impersonation of plantar fasciitis symptoms. Seronegative Arthropathies such as Psoriatic Arthritis, Reactive Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylisis are the most common types to cause heel pain by producing an inflammatory reaction where the fascia attaches to the heel. This is called an enthesitis. If you have a history of Psoriasis or a family history of other arthritic conditions listed above we recommend you see a clinician about your heel pain to confirm the diagnosis. Another occasional cause of heel pain is loss of the cushioning fat pad of the heel, which can result in a bruised heel bone (calcaneus). If you can easily feel your heel bone through your skin on the bottom of your foot you may well have poor fatty tissue on your heel. Pressing on the centre of your heel should feel like pushing into firm rubber, and your skin should not move easily. If you can pinch the skin under your heel and feel a very hard lump when you press the bottom of your heel then it is likely you have a heel fat pad problem. One simple final test is to walk on a hard floor. If you feel the pain only when your heel hits the ground a fat pad problem is most likely. If the pain mainly occurs as you lift the heel off the ground it is more likely to be plantar fasciitis.
Plantar fascia usually causes pain and stiffness on the bottom of your heel although some people have heel spurs and suffer no symptoms at all. Occasionally, heel pain is also associated with other medical disorders such as arthritis (inflammation of the joint), bursitis (inflammation of the tissues around the joint). Those who have symptoms may experience ?First step? pain (stone bruise sensation) after getting out of bed or sitting for a period of time. Pain after driving. Pain on the bottom of your heel. Deep aching pain. Pain can be worse when barefoot.
In most cases, your GP or a podiatrist (a specialist in foot problems and foot care) should be able to diagnose the cause of your heel pain by asking about your symptoms and medical history, examining your heel and foot.
Non Surgical Treatment
Home care, in cases that are not severe, home care is probably enough to get rid of heel pain. Rest, avoid running or standing for long periods, or walking on hard surfaces. Avoid activities that may stress the heels. Ice, place an ice-pack on the affected area for about 15 minutes. Do not place bare ice directly onto skin. Footwear. proper-fitting shoes that provide good support are crucial. Athletes should be particularly fussy about the shoes they use when practicing or competing - sports shoes need to be replaced at specific intervals (ask your trainer). Foot supports, wedges and heel cups can help relieve symptoms.
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (EST) is a fairly new type of non-invasive treatment. Non-invasive means it does not involve making cuts into your body. EST involves using a device to deliver high-energy soundwaves into your heel. The soundwaves can sometimes cause pain, so a local anaesthetic may be used to numb your heel. It is claimed that EST works in two ways. It is thought to have a "numbing" effect on the nerves that transmit pain signals to your brain, help stimulate and speed up the healing process. However, these claims have not yet been definitively proven. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has issued guidance about the use of EST for treating plantar fasciitis. NICE states there are no concerns over the safety of EST, but there are uncertainties about how effective the procedure is for treating heel pain. Some studies have reported that EST is more effective than surgery and other non-surgical treatments, while other studies found the procedure to be no better than a placebo (sham treatment).
Prevention of heel pain involves reducing the stress on that part of the body. Tips include. Barefeet, when on hard ground make sure you are wearing shoes. Bodyweight, if you are overweight there is more stress on the heels when you walk or run. Try to lose weight. Footwear, footwear that has material which can absorb some of the stress placed on the heel may help protect it. Examples include heel pads. Make sure your shoes fit properly and do not have worn down heels or soles. If you notice a link between a particular pair of shoes and heel pain, stop wearing them. Rest, if you are especially susceptible to heel pain, try to spend more time resting and less time on your feet. It is best to discuss this point with a specialized health care professional. Sports, warm up properly before engaging in activities that may place lots of stress on the heels. Make sure you have proper sports shoes for your task.